University, Subject, Country, Region, World

United States Scientist and University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering Rankings 2023

AD Scientific Index analyzes academic studies from 1 countries, 208 universities/institutions, and 1.181 scientists by using numerous criteria to present results to be used for the evaluation of productivity and efficiency by individuals and institutions. In addition to sorting by the “total H-index” you can find here, you can examine several rankings and analyses by the "last 5 years H-index", "total i10 index", "last 5 years' i10 index", "total number of citations", and “last 5 years’ citations”. Please read the methodology section for “Limitations and Possible Reasons Why a Scientist Is Not on This List”. Click for registration.

AD Scientific Index - World Scientist Rankings - 2023 H INDEX i10 INDEX CITATION
University / Institution Country Region World Name Country University / Institution Subject Total Last 5 year Last 5 year/total Total Last 5 year Last 5 year/total Total Last 5 year Last 5 year/total
1 2 2 3
United States Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

drug delivery | tissue engineering | biomaterials | nanotechnology | chemistry |

305 172 0.564 1820 1323 0.727 375950 133538 0.355
3 80 87 159
United States University of California San Diego University of California San Diego Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

microbial diversity | microbiome | environmental microbiology |

217 193 0.889 695 654 0.941 332296 241283 0.726
2 190 208 449
United States Tufts University Tufts University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

biomaterials | tissue engineering | silk | regenerative medicine |

188 128 0.681 1369 1117 0.816 160522 79564 0.496
1 202 220 476
United States George Mason University George Mason University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

cancer | bioengineering | proteomics |

186 58 0.312 824 373 0.453 150553 24473 0.163
27 228 249 540
United States Harvard University Harvard University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

bioengineering & cell biology |

182 107 0.588 461 379 0.822 133425 46822 0.351
15 338 366 788
United States University of California San Diego University of California San Diego Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

bioengineering | systems biology | metabolism | cell factories design | infectious disease |

167 100 0.599 649 487 0.750 108973 44216 0.406
6 451 485 1012
United States Rice University Rice University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biomaterials | Drug Delivery | Nanotechnology | Regenerative Medicine | Tissue Engineering |

157 86 0.548 562 465 0.827 93338 28932 0.310
7 549 590 1190
United States University of Chicago University of Chicago Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Bioengineering |

150 86 0.573 471 360 0.764 82479 25677 0.311
22 576 619 1244
United States University of California San Diego University of California San Diego Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Bioengineering | Physiology | Cardiovascular System |

148 75 0.507 625 337 0.539 80011 24606 0.308
1 832 887 1721
United States Washington State University Pullman Washington State University Pullman Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

sensors and biosensors | bioengineering | electrochemistry | fuel cell | energy |

137 99 0.723 519 437 0.842 74988 38582 0.515
1 945 1009 1941
United States University at Buffalo University at Buffalo Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Photonics | Nanobioengineering | Nanoscience | Nanochemistry | Biophotonics |

133 71 0.534 725 387 0.534 80255 25081 0.313
20 1041 1107 2109
United States Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

biomaterials | gene delivery | nanomedicine |

131 104 0.794 424 367 0.866 72003 45893 0.637
26 1182 1261 2369
United States Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

bioengineering | systems biology | computational biology |

128 64 0.500 386 265 0.687 58982 16655 0.282
29 1422 1521 2854
United States Columbia University New York Columbia University New York Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

bioengineering |

122 56 0.459 265 166 0.626 54385 11571 0.213
162 1632 1755 3267
United States Harvard University Harvard University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Drug Delivery | Pharmaceutics | Biomaterials | nanomedicine | ionic liquid |

118 83 0.703 309 279 0.903 55323 30415 0.550
27 1648 1774 3301
United States University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biomaterials | Tissue Engineering | Bioengineering | Hydrogels |

118 89 0.754 278 260 0.935 45020 29054 0.645
15 1764 1894 3522
United States University of Washington University of Washington Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

biomaterials | tissue engineering | biosurface science |

116 54 0.466 432 213 0.493 52426 14277 0.272
90 1910 2050 3802
United States Stanford University Stanford University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Muscle | Rehabilitation | Biomechanics | Bioengineering | Locomotion |

114 82 0.719 289 247 0.855 48826 25306 0.518
26 2287 2457 4551
United States University of North Carolina Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Drug delivery | nanomedicine | polymers | biomaterials | bioengineering |

109 64 0.587 347 241 0.695 46357 17578 0.379
14 2483 2674 4985
United States Rice University Rice University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Bioengineering | Global health |

107 52 0.486 374 251 0.671 37181 9897 0.266
53 2673 2877 5367
United States University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

bioengineering | cell and molecular biology | stem cell engineering | drug delivery systems | mechanotransduction |

104 75 0.721 251 207 0.825 75021 32333 0.431
22 2857 3084 5758
United States Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

human-computer interaction | collaboration | human-robot interaction | social computing | online communities |

102 64 0.627 214 140 0.654 71956 18239 0.253
8 2936 3174 5938
United States University of Utah University of Utah Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Drug delivery systems | Self-Assembly of Macromolecules | Biomaterials | Polymers | Hydrogels |

102 41 0.402 409 190 0.465 36667 8325 0.227
10 3039 3288 6129
United States Stony Brook University Stony Brook University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

bioengineering | biomechanics | bone | osteoporosis | orthopedics |

101 55 0.545 260 167 0.642 39192 9915 0.253
146 3042 3291 6135
United States Stanford University Stanford University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Tomography | Biophysics |

101 59 0.584 365 238 0.652 38832 13706 0.353
44 3106 3361 6260
United States University of California San Francisco University of California San Francisco Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

drug and gene delivery -nanomedicine |

100 50 0.500 246 156 0.634 49882 10750 0.216
73 3108 3363 6263
United States Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

neurotechnology | bioengineering | neuroscience | expansion microscopy | optogenetics |

100 88 0.880 376 306 0.814 49522 34377 0.694
22 3842 4168 7819
United States Georgia Institute of Technology Georgia Institute of Technology Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

biomaterials | regenerative medicine | cell adhesion | mechanotransduction |

95 65 0.684 247 216 0.874 28988 12860 0.444
126 3980 4314 8095
United States National Institutes of Health National Institutes of Health Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biophotonics | Diffuse Optics | Non-linear Optical Microscopy | Multi-modality imaging | Metabolic Imaging |

94 52 0.553 318 205 0.645 31904 9878 0.310
34 4120 4468 8388
United States Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Interaction Design | Human-Computer Interaction | HCI | User Interfaces | Software Engineering |

93 49 0.527 317 163 0.514 34456 8936 0.259
206 4423 4797 8997
United States Stanford University Stanford University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

diabetes | bioengineering | tissue engineering | microfluidics | wound healing |

91 67 0.736 285 260 0.912 40304 21799 0.541
119 4524 4909 9213
United States University of California Berkeley University of California Berkeley Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Bioengineering |

91 55 0.604 332 221 0.666 29011 11568 0.399
4 4568 4959 9299
United States Northeastern University Northeastern University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Human-Computer Interaction | Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing |

90 51 0.567 316 189 0.598 63245 13839 0.219
47 4666 5068 9512
United States University of Chicago University of Chicago Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

bioengineering |

90 68 0.756 152 144 0.947 31255 14922 0.477
56 4843 5263 9876
United States Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

bioengineering | tissue engineering | biomaterials | blood-brain barrier |

89 53 0.596 300 188 0.627 30919 10578 0.342
57 4853 5273 9897
United States Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Cardiovascular Imaging | Medical Imaging | Cardiac CT | Computed Tomography |

89 44 0.494 259 148 0.571 30026 7061 0.235
146 5330 5793 10942
United States University of California Berkeley University of California Berkeley Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biomimetic Materials | Materials for Medicine | Nanotechnology |

86 64 0.744 199 171 0.859 44402 22881 0.515
111 5614 6108 11559
United States University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Cellular Engineering Cell Motility Protocell Engineering Adhesive Dynamics |

85 45 0.529 224 159 0.710 30112 9507 0.316
132 5688 6186 11719
United States University of California San Diego University of California San Diego Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

cartilage | osteoarthritis | tissue engineering | biomechanics | bioengineering |

85 46 0.541 246 176 0.715 25724 8077 0.314
135 5931 6453 12200
United States University of California San Diego University of California San Diego Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Natural products | biosynthesis | bioengineering | genomics | drug discovery |

84 57 0.679 216 187 0.866 25978 14840 0.571

 New. 2023 Country Top Lists: Top 10000, 5000, 3000, 2000, 1000. Only in AD Scientific Index

136 5940 6465 12225
United States University of California San Diego University of California San Diego Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Cardiac bioengineering | Heart disease | Cardiac biophysics | Multiscale modeling | Biological basis of performance |

84 45 0.536 255 177 0.694 25168 8376 0.333
24 6451 7024 13336
United States Rice University Rice University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Structure | Function | and Dynamics of Proteins |

82 37 0.451 268 157 0.586 25429 5756 0.226
50 6657 7246 13783
United States University of Washington University of Washington Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Human-Computer Interaction | HCI | Visualization | Information Visualization | Visual Analytics |

81 62 0.765 150 130 0.867 28110 16176 0.575
156 6864 7486 14239
United States Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Human-Computer Interaction | Tangible User Interfaces | Tangible Bits | Radical Atoms | Telepresence |

80 54 0.675 215 151 0.702 33465 9958 0.298
58 6888 7515 14300
United States Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Human-Computer Interaction | HCI | Usable Privacy and Security | Mobile computing | Social Computing |

80 59 0.738 179 134 0.749 30037 12198 0.406
20 6953 7586 14434
United States University of Oregon University of Oregon Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Regenerative Medicine | Musculoskeletal Bioengineering |

80 56 0.700 245 203 0.829 26084 12226 0.469
54 7064 7706 14670
United States University of Illinois Urbana Champaign University of Illinois Urbana Champaign Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biosensors | nanotechnology | live cell dynamics | single molecule tools | epigenetics |

80 49 0.613 290 220 0.759 21781 10077 0.463
164 7079 7721 14694
United States University of California San Diego University of California San Diego Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biomaterials |

80 76 0.950 186 174 0.935 21241 18951 0.892
25 7116 7761 14771
United States Rice University Rice University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Microbial genetics and metabolism |

80 34 0.425 236 127 0.538 18118 4418 0.244
57 7258 7911 15051
United States University of Washington University of Washington Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Bioengineering | diagnostics | microfluidics | global health | biophysics |

79 44 0.557 217 118 0.544 26701 7687 0.288
58 7299 7956 15155
United States University of Illinois Urbana Champaign University of Illinois Urbana Champaign Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biomaterials | nanomedicine | drug and gene delivery | dynamic chemistry | polymer chemistry |

79 64 0.810 217 200 0.922 24434 14378 0.588
16 7348 8009 15281
United States University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

tissue engineering | extracellular matrix | bone | cartilage | wear debris particles |

79 30 0.380 188 80 0.426 22381 3953 0.177
110 7655 8342 15961
United States University of California San Francisco University of California San Francisco Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biomedical nanotechnology | Biomaterials | Drug Delivery | Regenerative Medicine |

78 47 0.603 240 188 0.783 22257 8106 0.364
323 8030 8761 16852
United States Stanford University Stanford University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Automated Science | Machine Learning | Automated Model Discovery | Living Matter | Biophysics |

77 59 0.766 235 205 0.872 17656 11927 0.676
71 8635 9441 18308
United States Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Human-Computer Interaction |

75 45 0.600 200 129 0.645 17718 6182 0.349

FAQ    Frequently Asked Questions and Answers

223 8945 9784 19043
United States University of California Berkeley University of California Berkeley Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biomaterials | Tissue Engineering | Stem Cells |

74 41 0.554 151 116 0.768 19263 6578 0.341
223 8945 9784 19043
United States University of California Berkeley University of California Berkeley Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

biomaterials | stem cell engineering | microphysiological systems |

74 41 0.554 151 116 0.768 19263 6578 0.341
180 8988 9833 19154
United States University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

microfluidics | point of care diagnostics | fluid mechanics | heat transfer | electrokinetics |

74 37 0.500 204 129 0.632 17549 5642 0.321
544 9135 9994 19446
United States Harvard University Harvard University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

vascular biology | bioengineering | blood dynamics | microfluidics |

73 51 0.699 132 110 0.833 26759 11035 0.412
204 9143 10004 19463
United States University of California Los Angeles University of California Los Angeles Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Microfluidics | Single-Cell Analysis | Diagnostics | Cytometry | Cell Mechanics |

73 67 0.918 209 193 0.923 26065 16750 0.643
573 10125 11100 21791
United States Harvard University Harvard University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

71 62 0.873 150 140 0.933 19269 12866 0.668
224 10193 11176 21948
United States University of California Los Angeles University of California Los Angeles Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Catheter ablation of cardiac arrhythmias | mechanisms of arrhythmias | autonomic regulation of the heart | innovative technologies |

71 54 0.761 248 206 0.831 17935 11622 0.648
136 10575 11593 22846
United States Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biomaterials | Therapeutic delivery | Regenerative engineering | Immunoengineering |

70 48 0.686 188 147 0.782 18806 7495 0.399
129 11060 12131 23918
United States University of Pittsburgh University of Pittsburgh Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

biomaterials | lithium ion battery | energy storage | electrolysis | non viral gene delivery |

69 49 0.710 233 170 0.730 18544 8565 0.462
639 11812 12979 25708
United States Harvard University Harvard University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

bioengineering | biomaterials | drug delivery | diagnostic devices | tissue engineering |

67 49 0.731 154 137 0.890 29126 16555 0.568
38 12168 13378 26540
United States Brown University Brown University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

drug delivery | gene delivery | bioengineering | polymer science. |

67 28 0.418 169 89 0.527 15885 3251 0.205
145 12232 13451 26706
United States University of Pittsburgh University of Pittsburgh Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Tissue engineering | adipose stem cells | drug delivery | peripheral nerve repair |

67 44 0.657 151 127 0.841 14839 6889 0.464
75 12459 13703 27222
United States University of Utah University of Utah Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

bioengineering | economic sustainability | steady state population |

66 23 0.348 193 45 0.233 20582 2482 0.121
138 12486 13737 27292
United States University of California Irvine University of California Irvine Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

vascular biology | bioengineering | tumor microenvironment |

66 44 0.667 117 89 0.761 19702 8316 0.422
282 12530 13783 27396
United States University of California Berkeley University of California Berkeley Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

66 54 0.818 135 118 0.874 18475 10645 0.576
37 12701 13979 27860
United States University of Illinois Chicago University of Illinois Chicago Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

tissue engineering | biomaterials | bioactive factor delivery | regenerative medicine | diease therapeutics |

66 55 0.833 133 129 0.970 14595 7868 0.539
109 12729 14009 27943
United States University of Maryland University of Maryland Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

biomaterials | tissue engineering | 3d printing | bioprinting | bioreactors |

66 54 0.818 170 143 0.841 13918 8741 0.628
39 12770 14055 28067
United States Rice University Rice University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

metabolic and cellular engineering |

66 31 0.470 161 95 0.590 11210 3217 0.287
139 12922 14222 28346
United States University of Florida University of Florida Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biomaterials | Neural Engineering | Tissue Engineering |

65 49 0.754 142 121 0.852 21903 8953 0.409
142 13132 14457 28892
United States New York University New York University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biomaterials | Tissue Engineering | Reconstructive Surgery |

65 47 0.723 291 245 0.842 15835 9505 0.600
42 13519 14902 29883
United States University of South Florida University of South Florida Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Medical Image Analysis | Image and Video Processing | Pattern Recognition | Ethics and Computing | Bioinformatics and Bioengineering |

64 42 0.656 222 115 0.518 18125 8490 0.468
302 13959 15406 31075
United States National Institutes of Health National Institutes of Health Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biophysics | Bioengineering | Structural Biology | Nanotechnology | Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy |

63 40 0.635 157 86 0.548 22166 6887 0.311
175 14225 15707 31733
United States University of California San Francisco University of California San Francisco Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

microfluidics | soft-condensed matter physics | synthetic biology | single cell analysis |

63 52 0.825 143 139 0.972 14890 10033 0.674
16 14361 15860 32112
United States University of Texas San Antonio University of Texas San Antonio Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Tissue Engineering | Dental Implants | Orthopedic Implants | Surface Modifications | Biomaterials Characterization |

63 31 0.492 137 95 0.693 12844 4252 0.331
38 14390 15897 32208
United States University of Kansas University of Kansas Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

biomaterials | dental materials | bioengineering | spectroscopic imaging | interface characterization |

63 29 0.460 148 102 0.689 12047 3568 0.296
114 14667 16195 32845
United States Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Learning science and technologies | intelligent tutoring systems | educational games |

62 45 0.726 198 143 0.722 16823 7832 0.466
328 14684 16216 32898
United States University of California Berkeley University of California Berkeley Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biomaterials Drug Delivery | Molecular Imaging |

62 44 0.710 120 111 0.925 16577 7800 0.471
15 15214 16801 34281
United States Lehigh University Lehigh University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Materials | Mechanics | Adhesion | Soft Matter |

61 35 0.574 152 114 0.750 18382 5588 0.304
50 15295 16890 34461
United States University of Illinois Chicago University of Illinois Chicago Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

bioengineering | fractional calculus | NMR | MRI |

61 35 0.574 184 103 0.560 16618 6722 0.405
313 15380 16983 34677
United States University of California San Diego University of California San Diego Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Nanoscience | nanobiotechnology | nanomedicine |

61 37 0.607 130 86 0.662 15049 4782 0.318
118 15421 17031 34788
United States Georgia Institute of Technology Georgia Institute of Technology Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Human-computer interaction |

61 32 0.525 142 76 0.535 14604 3420 0.234
323 15959 17641 36130
United States University of California San Diego University of California San Diego Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biomedical integrated circuits and systems | neuromorphic systems engineering | learning and intelligent systems |

60 40 0.667 240 127 0.529 17095 8101 0.474
23 16059 17751 36366
United States US Veterans Affairs US Veterans Affairs Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Bioengineering |

60 40 0.667 118 82 0.695 15288 4730 0.309
307 16072 17768 36395
United States University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

60 35 0.583 147 78 0.531 15126 4074 0.269
348 16160 17870 36681
United States University of California Berkeley University of California Berkeley Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Computational Biomechanics | Cell Mechanobiology | Molecular Biophysics |

60 42 0.700 169 145 0.858 13767 6582 0.478

Institutional Subscription (Discount and Free Institutional Academic Performance Report)

153 16618 18404 37841
United States Princeton University Princeton University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Developmental biology | evolutionary developmental bioengineering | tissue engineering | morphogenesis | mechanobiology |

59 45 0.763 114 102 0.895 19262 7988 0.415
111 16639 18428 37888
United States University of Washington University of Washington Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Human Computer Interaction | Accessibility | Theoretical Computer Science | Algorithms |

59 35 0.593 163 86 0.528 18465 5021 0.272
51 16814 18624 38338
United States Temple University Temple University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Tissue and Regenerative Engineering | Smart Biomaterials | Vascular Biology | Mechanotransduction | Gravitational Biology |

59 33 0.559 199 91 0.457 14574 4763 0.327
61 17333 19200 39656
United States Rice University Rice University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

bioengineering | nanotechnology | imaging |

58 38 0.655 98 67 0.684 21834 6522 0.299
555 17702 19614 40568
United States Stanford University Stanford University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

biomaterials | hydrogels | regenerative medicine |

58 51 0.879 127 120 0.945 13043 9024 0.692
368 17817 19742 40925
United States University of California Los Angeles University of California Los Angeles Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

58 48 0.828 125 100 0.800 11732 6853 0.584
194 17848 19775 41015
United States University of Texas Austin University of Texas Austin Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Biomaterials | Tissue Engineering | Stem Cell Transplantation |

58 43 0.741 102 93 0.912 11452 4725 0.413
118 17860 19787 41047
United States University of Washington University of Washington Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Accessibility | Fabrication | Ubicomp | Human Computer Interaction |

58 41 0.707 148 113 0.764 11339 5171 0.456
559 18008 19963 41491
United States Stanford University Stanford University Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Human-computer interaction | social computing |

57 49 0.860 123 109 0.886 54150 46445 0.858
355 18037 19993 41537
United States University of California San Diego University of California San Diego Engineering & Technology / Bioengineering

Stem Cells | Extracellular Matrix | Mechanotransduction | Muscle |

57 51 0.895 99 94 0.949 34313 17521 0.511